Uterine fibroids, also known as leiomyomas or myomas, are benign (non-cancerous) growths that develop from the muscular tissue of the uterus. They are quite common, especially in women of reproductive age, and can vary greatly in size, number, and location within the uterus.

Understanding the different types of uterine fibroids with Gaudium IVF, the best IVF Center in Delhi, is essential for accurate diagnosis and effective treatment. There are four primary types of uterine fibroids, classified based on their location in the uterus: intramural, submucosal, subserosal, and pedunculated fibroids.

Intramural Fibroids

Intramural fibroids are the most common type and develop within the muscular wall of the uterus. As they grow, they can cause the uterus to expand, leading to an overall increase in uterine size. Symptoms of intramural fibroids can include heavy menstrual bleeding, prolonged periods, pelvic pain or pressure, frequent urination, and fertility issues. The degree of symptoms often correlates with the size and number of the fibroids.

Submucosal Fibroids

Submucosal fibroids grow just beneath the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium) and protrude into the uterine cavity. Although they are less common than other types, submucosal fibroids are often associated with severe symptoms. These can include heavy menstrual bleeding, bleeding between periods, and problems with fertility and pregnancy, such as recurrent miscarriages. Because they protrude into the uterine cavity, even small submucosal fibroids can cause significant bleeding and reproductive issues.

Subserosal Fibroids

Subserosal fibroids develop on the outer wall of the uterus, extending into the pelvic cavity. These fibroids may not affect menstrual flow directly but can cause other symptoms due to their location. As they grow, subserosal fibroids can put pressure on surrounding organs such as the bladder or rectum, leading to symptoms like frequent urination, constipation, and pelvic or back pain. In some cases, very large subserosal fibroids can cause visible abdominal distension.

Pedunculated Fibroids

Pedunculated fibroids are a subtype of both submucosal and subserosal fibroids, characterized by their attachment to the uterine wall via a stalk or peduncle. These fibroids can protrude either into the uterine cavity (pedunculated submucosal fibroids) or outside the uterus (pedunculated subserosal fibroids). The stalk can sometimes twist, causing severe pain due to the interruption of blood flow to the fibroid, a condition known as torsion.

Other Considerations

The symptoms and impact of uterine fibroids depend largely on their size, location, and number. While some women with fibroids experience no symptoms, others may have significant discomfort and complications. In addition to the primary symptoms described for each type, fibroids can also cause generalized symptoms such as fatigue due to anemia from heavy bleeding, or issues related to sexual function due to pelvic pain.

Diagnosis and Treatment

Diagnosis of uterine fibroids typically involves a pelvic examination, ultrasound, and sometimes additional imaging techniques like MRI. Treatment options depend on the severity of symptoms, the size and location of the fibroids, the woman’s age, and her desire for future pregnancies. Options range from watchful waiting for small, asymptomatic fibroids to medications that can help manage symptoms, and various surgical interventions.

Minimally invasive procedures such as uterine artery embolization (UAE) and MRI-guided focused ultrasound surgery (FUS) are increasingly used, alongside traditional surgical options like myomectomy (removal of fibroids) and hysterectomy (removal of the uterus).


Uterine fibroids are a common gynecological condition with various types that influence a woman’s health. Understanding the different types of fibroids intramural, submucosal, subserosal, and pedunculated is crucial for effective diagnosis and treatment planning. While fibroids can cause significant symptoms and complications for some women, a range of treatment options is available to manage. Early detection and appropriate medical intervention can greatly improve quality of life for those affected by uterine fibroids.